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类案检察建议的适用与提高行政监督实效
发布时间: 2018-12-06  作者:  新闻来源:  【字号: | |

  张永胜

  □类案检察建议不是检察权行使的一个新的独立手段,而是检察建议的特殊类型,不需要具体的司法解释和立法扩权,最高检可以通过细化检察建议的类型和功能来支撑、发展和提升这项权力,并进一步通过实践和规范的途径完善类案检察建议制度。

  □类案检察建议可以由本级检察机关通过上级检察机关直接向建议对象的上级主管部门提出,同时抄送本级党委、人大、监察委、法院;应定位为单向告知,突出类案检察建议文书内容的公示、公开,同时在程序上不适用异议与复核。

  XINSHIQI,TIGAOXINGZHENGJIANDUSHIXIAOSHIQIANGHUAJIANCHAJIGUANFALVJIANDUZHINENGDEGUANJIAN。QIZHONG,JIANCHAJIANYIJISHIJIANDULVZEDEZHUYAOSHOUDUAN,YOUSHIDANGQIANJIANCHAGONGZUOZHONGDEBORUODIANHEZENGZHANGDIAN。MUQIAN,GEANJIANCHAJIANYIDEZHIDUSHEJIBINGBUNENGCHONGFENZHICHIFALVJIANDUQUANDESHIXIAN,YOUQISHINANYISHIYINGCUOZONGFUZADESHEHUIZHILIXINGSHI。RUHEZAIXIANYOUZHIDUKUANGJIAXIAJIANCHIYIBANANWEIZHONGXINDEFALVJIANDULUJING,YOUZAIJIANDUXIAOGUOSHANGJINYIBUQIANGHUAJIANDUGANGXING,TISHENGJIANDUQUANWEI,LEIANJIANCHAJIANYIDEZHONGSHIYUQIANGHUASHIYONGSHIKEGONGCANKAODEJIEJUEFANGAN。YINGDANGJIANGLEIANJIANCHAJIANYIZUOWEIGEANJIANDUDEBIYAOBUCHONGYUZHONGYAOTISHENG,CONGZUZHIJICHU、CHENGXUSHEJI、LUOSHIJIZHIDENGYAOSULAIQIANGHUAQISHIYONG,TONGGUOTIGAOYINGXIANGLIHESHUOFULILAIMIBUQIFALVQIANGZHILIDEBUZU,JINERTISHENGXINGZHENGJIANCHAJIANDUGONGZUODEZHENGTISHIXIAO。

  个案检察监督的现实困境

  JUXIANYUGEANDEXINGZHENGJIANCHAJIANDUMOSHIMUQIANZHENGXIANRUYIDINGKUNJING:SHOUXIAN,GEANJIANDUDEANJIANSHOULILIANG、TIQIKANGSUSHUYIJIZHIFAJIANCHAJIANYISHUDOUXIANGDUIYOUXIAN。JINNIANLAI,JINGUANXINGZHENGJIANCHAJIANDUDEANJIANSHOULILIANGMEINIANYIJIAOKUAISUDUZENGZHANG,DANZHENGTIANJIANLIANGRENGYUANDIYUGONGSUANJIAN。QIZHONG,JIANCHAJIGUANJIYUFALVJIANDUQUANDEQIANYIXINGYAOQIU,JINJIUXINGZHENGWEIFABIJIAOYANZHONGQIEMINGXIANDEANJIANTIQIKANGSUHUOZHIFAJIANYI,DANJIBIANRUCI,ZUIZHONGBEIFAYUANZHICHIDEJIANDUANJIANRENGSHISHAOSHU,JIUCUOSHULIANGHEBILIDOUYUANDIYUTONGJIFAYUANXITONGDEZAISHENJIZHI。QICI,JIANCHAJIANDUDESHIJIGONGZUOLIANGWUFAZAIXIANYOUGONGZUOJIZHIZHONGCHONGFENTIXIAN。SHIJIANZHONG,JIANCHAJIGUANCHUYUWEIFACHENGDUQINGWEIHUOZHEQUANHENGSHEHUIXIAOGUODEKAOLV,DUIHENDUOJINGBANANJIANDOUWEITICHUZHENGSHIKANGSUHUOZHIFAJIANYI,DANZHENDUIZHEILEIANJIANTONGYANGHUIJINXINGDALIANGDEDIAOCHA、GOUTONGJIXIEDIAOGONGZUO。ZUIHOU,MUQIANDEGEANJIANDUSHOUXIANYUYISHENQINGWEIZHUDESHOUANJIZHI,DANGSHIRENYICHANSUZHUTIWEIZHU,QIZHONGDUOSHUANJIANDOUNANYIZHICHI,GAILEIANJIANZHENGZAIYANZHONGLANGFEISIFAZIYUAN。

  ZAIXINSHIQIGUANCHELUOSHIQUANMIANSHENHUASIFATIZHIGAIGEDEDAXINGSHIXIA,JIANCHAJIANYIZHIDUCHENGZAILEJIANCHAJIANDUGONGZUOCHUANGXINDEJIAOGAOQIDAI。TUIDONG“SIDAJIANCHA”QUANMIANXIEDIAOCHONGFENFAZHAN,GURANSHIJIANCHAJIGUANDEZHUZEZHUYE,DANSHIJINJUXIANYUGEANSHIJIAO,NANYIJINYIBUGONGGUHETIGAOJIANCHAJIGUANZAIGUOJIAZHILIXIANDAIHUATIXIDINGCENGSHEJIZHONGDEGONGNENGDIWEI。ZAISHIJIYUNZUOZHONG,BENYINGCHAOTUOYUGEFANGDEJIANCHAJIGUAN,FANERZAIJIANDUANJIANBANLIZHONGSHOUZHIYUDUOFANGLIYI,ZUIZHONGDAOZHIWUKEZUOWEI。ZHEIZHONGJIANDUXIANZHUANG,YIDINGCHENGDUSHANGCUOSHANGLEJIANCHAGONGZUODEJIJIXINGHEFALVJIANDUDEQUANWEIXING。SUIRANGEANJIANCHAJIANYIYEKEYIZHICHUPUBIANXINGDEWEIFAJIUZHENG、SHEHUIZHILIWENTI,DANSHIBUXITONGQIEQUEFAQIANGZHILIDEGEANJIANCHAJIANYIWANGWANGWUFAYINQIYOUGUANBUMENZHONGSHI,ZAIGEFANGXIEDIAOXIA“GEANGEBAN”,DUIGONGZHENGSIFAHEYIFAXINGZHENGDEGAIJINSHIXIAOSHENWEI。

  类案检察建议的类型与优势

  YIXINGZHENGSUSONGWEIJIBENZHIDIANSUOYUNZUODELEIANJIANCHAJIANYISHIJIANCHAJIGUANXINGSHIFALVJIANDUZHINENGDEZHONGYAOFANGSHI,ZAIXINSHIQICHENGZAIZHECANYUSHEHUIZHILI、JIANDUXINGZHENGYIFASHENSHEN、WEIHUSIFAGUIFANTONGYIDENGZHONGYAOGONGNENG,QIGENBENDEMUDESHIQUEBAOFALVTONGYIZHENGQUESHISHI。JIANCHAJIGUANQUEBAOFALVTONGYIZHENGQUESHISHIDEMUDEYIJINGHANGAIBINGQIECHAOYUELEFALVSHIYONGTONGYIDEFANCHOU,ZHEYANYULIFA、XINGZHENG、SHENPANDENGZHUTIDUIFALVMUDE、YUANZE、GUIFANSHIXIANDEQUANGUOCHENG。MUQIANDEJIANCHAGONGZUOSHIJIANZHONG,LEIANJIANCHAJIANYIDESHIYONGYIYOUYIDINGTANSUO,YEYANSHENCHUZHUANXIANGBAOGAO、NIANDUBAIPISHU、GUIFANXINGWENJIANLIANXISHENCHADENGJIZHICHUANGXIN。

  LEIANJIANCHAJIANYIZHUYAOBAOKUOLIANGLEI:QIYI,DUIZHONGDAYINHUAN、PUBIANXING、QINGXIANGXINGDEWEIFAWENTI,XUYAOYINQIZHONGSHIYUYIJIEJUEDEJIUZHENGWEIFALEIJIANYI。ZHEILEIJIANYIKEYISHIDALIANGGEANSUOTIXIANDEPUBIANXINGWENTI,YEKEYISHIBUSHIHEYIGEANTIQIHUOZHEJINYIGEANTIQINANYITIXIANYANZHONGXINGDEWENTIJIHE。QIER,DUIXIANGGUANZHUGUANBUMENTICHUGAIJINGONGZUO、WANSHANZHILIDESHEHUIZHILILEIJIANYI。ZHEILEIJIANYISHIDUIXINGZHENGJIGUANSUOCUNZAIDEJIANGUANLOUDONGHUOZHEZHIFABUGUIFANSUOZUOCHUDETISHI,SUIRANSHANGWEIDADAOWEIFACHENGDU,DANSHIJIYUSHEHUIZHILIHEFALVJIANDUDEHONGGUANJIAODU,JIANCHAJIGUANYIYOUQUANZETICHU。

  JIEHELEIANJIANCHAJIANYIDEJIBENTEZHENG,KEZHIQIDUTEDEZHIDUYOUSHI:QIYI,LEIANJIANCHAJIANYIDEJIANDUDUIXIANGGENGJIAGUANGFAN。LEIANJIANCHAJIANYIDEZHIFADUIXIANGBUXIANYUBENANDANGSHIREN,ERKEYIGENJUJIANDUXUYAO,XIANGQITAXIANGGUANZHUTIFACHUJIANYI,XIANGBIGEANJIANCHAJIANYIDEZHIFADUIXIANGDANYIXINGJUYOUMINGXIANYOUSHI。QIER,LEIANJIANCHAJIANYIDEJIANDUNEIRONGGENGWEIXITONG。LEIANJIANCHAJIANYIDEZHIFAMUDEBUXIANYUSUSONGDEGEANWENTI,KEYICONGZHIDUCENGMIANLAIFANSIHEXIUBUJIANGUANLOUDONG,GUANLIANDUOZHONGKENENGDEJIANDUNEIRONG,SHENZHIJUCIFAQIZHUDONGDEZHUANXIANGZHILIHUODONG,XIANGBIXIAYIDEGEANJIUCUONEIRONGERYANGENGWEISHENDU、XITONG。QISAN,LEIANJIANCHAJIANYIDEJIANDUXINGSHIGENGJIALINGHUO。LEIANJIANCHAJIANYIDEJIANDUXINGSHIBUXIANYUYIZHIJIANYIWENSHU,HAIKEYIBAOKUODUOYUANHUADELIANXIHUIYITONGBAO、NIANDUBAOGAO、ZHUANXIANGBAOGAODENG,KEYITONGGUODUOZHONGTUJINGKUODAJIANDUYINGXIANG,TIGAOJIANDUQUANWEI。

  将类案检察建议作为必要补充与重要提升

  GEANJIANCHAJIANYIDERENWUZAIYUQUANLIJIUJIFUDAIXINGZHENGJIANDU,WEISHIXIANGETIQUANLIDEXIUFUYIJIJUTIWEIFAXINGWEIDEJIAOZHENG,BIXUYISUSONGCHENGXUWEIYITUO,YISIFACAIPANWEIZUIZHONGPANDUAN。LEIANJIANCHAJIANYIZEJUJIAOYUJIANDUZHUZE,ZHENDUISIFAGEANNANYIJIAOZHENGHUOCHAOYUESIFAFANCHOUDEZHIDUXINGWENTITICHUJIANYI,TONGYANGJUYOUZHONGJUFALVXIAOLI。LEIANJIANCHAJIANYIDEXIANFAJICHUZAIYUGUOJIAJIANCHAQUAN,YULIFA、XINGZHENG、SIFA、JIANCHADENGQITAGUOJIAGONGQUANLIYIYANG,JIANCHAJIGUANZAIFALVJIANDULINGYUDEZHUANYEPANDUANJUYOUDULIDEXIAOLI,CHULEZAISUSONGCHENGXUSHANGCHANSHENGJUSHULIZHIWAI,HAIKEYIZAIFALVSHIYONGCENGMIANDUIQITAGUOJIAJIGUANCHANSHENGSHISHISHANGDEYINGXIANGLI。LEIANJIANCHAJIANYIBUSHIJIANCHAQUANXINGSHIDEYIGEXINDEDULISHOUDUAN,ERSHIJIANCHAJIANYIDETESHULEIXING,BUXUYAOJUTIDESIFAJIESHIHELIFAKUOQUAN,ZUIGAOJIANKEYITONGGUOXIHUAJIANCHAJIANYIDELEIXINGHEGONGNENGLAIZHICHENG、FAZHANHETISHENGZHEIXIANGQUANLI,BINGJINYIBUTONGGUOSHIJIANHEGUIFANDETUJINGWANSHANLEIANJIANCHAJIANYIZHIDU。

  QIANGHUALEIANJIANCHAJIANYIZHIDUDEJUTIYAOSUZAIYU:ZUZHIJICHUSHANG,JIANCHAXITONGYITIHUAJIZHISHILEIANJIANCHAJIANYIFAHUIGONGXIAODEGUANJIAN。SHIJIGONGZUOZHONG,YOUJICENGJIANCHAJIGUANZHIFADEJIANCHAJIANYIWANGWANGNANYIYINQIZHUGUANBUMENZHONGSHI,NEIMEZHEILEIJIANYIKEYIYOUBENJIJIANCHAJIGUANTONGGUOSHANGJIJIANCHAJIGUANZHIJIEXIANGJIANYIDUIXIANGDESHANGJIZHUGUANBUMENTICHU,TONGSHICHAOSONGBENJIDANGWEI、RENDA、JIANCHAWEI、FAYUAN。CHENGXUSHEJISHANG,LEIANJIANCHAJIANYIYINGDINGWEIWEIDANXIANGGAOZHI。YINGDANGTUCHULEIANJIANCHAJIANYIWENSHUNEIRONGDEGONGSHI、GONGKAI,TONGSHIZAICHENGXUSHANGBUSHIYONGYIYIYUFUHE。LEIANJIANCHAJIANYIDEZHIFAMUDEBUZAIYUJIANYIDUIXIANGDEHUIFU,ERZAIYUYINGXIANGHECHUFAQUANLIJIGUANHEQITAGUOJIAJIGUANDEGENJINYUGUANZHU,JINERSHIXIANFALVJIANDUDEQUANFANGWEIJUJIAO。LUOSHIJIZHISHANG,XIANGGUANJIGUANDUILEIANJIANCHAJIANYIDELUOSHIYAOGEZICHENGDANZHENGZHIZEREN。BUJINYAOQIUJIANCHAJIGUANDUISUOZHIFADELEIANJIANCHAJIANYICHIXUGENJINPINGGU,ZAIGONGZUOBAOGAOZHONGZHONGDIANSHUOMINGZHIFA、HUIFUJIHOUXUBANLIQINGKUANG,XIANGDUIYINGDE,RENDAYEYINGDANGYAOQIUBEIJIANYIJIGUANJIANGLEIANJIANCHAJIANYIDEGAIJINQINGKUANGZUOWEIGONGZUOBAOGAODEBIYAONEIRONG。

  (ZUOZHEFENBIEWEISHANGHAISHIRENMINJIANCHAYUANDISANFENYUANDISIBUZHUREN,SHANGHAISHEHUIKEXUEYUANFAXUEYANJIUSUOZHULIYANJIUYUAN)

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